University of Oulu

Pahnila, M., Koskela, A., Sulasalmi, P., & Fabritius, T. (2023). A Review of Pyrolysis Technologies and the Effect of Process Parameters on Biocarbon Properties. Energies, 16(19), 6936.

A review of pyrolysis technologies and the effect of process parameters on biocarbon properties

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Author: Pahnila, Mika1; Koskela, Aki1; Sulasalmi, Petri1;
Organizations: 1Process Metallurgy Research Unit, Faculty of Technology, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 4300, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 2 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2023
Publish Date: 2023-10-17


Biomass-based solutions have been discussed as having the potential to replace fossil-based solutions in the iron and steel industry. To produce the biocarbon required in these processes, thermochemical treatment, pyrolysis, typically takes place. There are various ways to produce biocarbon, alongside other products, which are called pyrolysis oil and pyrolysis gas. These conversion methods can be divided into conventional and non-conventional methods. In this paper, those techniques and technologies to produce biocarbon are summarized and reviewed. Additionally, the effect of different process parameters and their effect on biocarbon yield and properties are summarized. The process parameters considered were final pyrolysis temperature, heating rate, reaction atmosphere, pressure, catalyst, use of binders, and particle size. Finally, the effect of different reactor configurations is discussed. Understanding the combination of these methods, technology parameters, and reactor configurations will help to produce biocarbon with the desired quality and highest yield possible.

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Series: Energies
ISSN: 1996-1073
ISSN-E: 1996-1073
ISSN-L: 1996-1073
Volume: 16
Issue: 19
Article number: 6936
DOI: 10.3390/en16196936
Type of Publication: A2 Review article in a scientific journal
Field of Science: 215 Chemical engineering
218 Environmental engineering
222 Other engineering and technologies
Funding: This research was funded by Business Finland as a part of the Towards Fossil-Free Steel (FFS) research program, grant number 45774/31/2020. M.P. also received financial support for the Steel and Metals Producers’ Fund of the Technology Industries Centennial Foundation Furthermore, M.P. received financial support from the Finnish Foundation for Technology Promotion.
Copyright information: © 2023 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (