University of Oulu

Mareš, J., Karjalainen, J., Håkansson, P., Michaeli, S., & Liimatainen, T. (2023). Glucose exchange parameters in a subset of physiological conditions. In Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics (Vol. 25, Issue 34, pp. 22965–22978). Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC).

Glucose exchange parameters in a subset of physiological conditions

Saved in:
Author: Mareš, J.1,2; Karjalainen, J.2; Håkansson, P.1;
Organizations: 1NMR Research Unit, Faculty of Science, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 3000, FIN-90014, Finland
2Research Unit of Health Sciences and Technology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oulu, Finland
3Center for MR Research, Radiology Department, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis MN55455, USA
4Department of Radiology, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.2 MB)
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: Royal Society of Chemistry, 2023
Publish Date: 2023-10-18


The chemical exchange of labile protons of the hydroxyl groups can be exploited in a variety of magnetic resonance experiments to gain information about the groups and their physicochemical environment. The exchangeable –OH protons provide important contributions to the T2 of water signals thus contributing to the T2-weighted contrast of MRI images. This exchange can be exploited more specifically and sensitively in chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) or longitudinal rotating frame relaxation (T1,ρ) experiments. Since glucose is omnipresent in living organisms, it may be seen as a rather universal probe. Even though the potential was first recognized many years ago, practical use has remained scarce due to numerous challenges. The major limitation is the rather low glucose concentration in most tissues. The other obstacles are related to multiple dependencies of the exchange parameters, such as temperature, pH, and concentration of various ions that are not known in sufficient detail for glucose. Thus, we embarked on evaluating the exchange parameters of a model that included every relevant chemical site for all –OH protons in both dominant enantiomers of glucose. We have (1) obtained conventional one-dimensional proton NMR spectra of glucose solutions in suitable temperature ranges, (2) we have iterated through several exchange models with various degrees of freedom determined by the number of distinguishable –OH proton sites and compared their performance, (3) we extrapolated the parameters of the best model of physiological temperature and (4) we demonstrated the use of the parameters in virtual experiments. As the main results, (1) we have obtained the temperature dependence of exchange parameters with reliable confidence intervals in three different pH values, with two of them reaching physiological temperature, and (2) we show how the parameters can be used in virtual experiments, helping to develop new applications for glucose as an NMR/MRI probe.

see all

Series: PCCP. Physical chemistry chemical physics
ISSN: 1463-9076
ISSN-E: 1463-9084
ISSN-L: 1463-9076
Volume: 25
Issue: 34
Pages: 22965 - 22978
DOI: 10.1039/d3cp01973j
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 114 Physical sciences
116 Chemical sciences
Funding: This work was supported by the Center for Magnetic Resonance Research NIH core grant P41 EB027061 (SM), Academy of Finland: projects 325082 (JM), and 325082, 340761 (TL).
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 325082
Detailed Information: 325082 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
325082 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
340761 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © The Author(s) 2023. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported Licence. You can use material from this article in other publications without requesting further permissions from the RSC, provided that the correct acknowledgement is given.