University of Oulu

Airaksinen, S., Haapakangas, J., Laukka, A., Heikkinen, E. and Fabritius, T. (2023), Oxide Scale Formation of Stainless Steels with Different Heating Methods – Effect of Hydrogen as Fuel. steel research int. 2300334.

Oxide scale formation of stainless steels with different heating methods : effect of hydrogen as fuel

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Author: Airaksinen, Susanna1; Haapakangas, Juho1; Laukka, Aleksi1;
Organizations: 1Process Metallurgy Research Unit, University of Oulu, PO Box 4300, 90014 Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 2.3 MB)
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Language: English
Published: John Wiley & Sons, 2023
Publish Date: 2023-10-18


The evolution from natural gas usage to new technologies, such as the use of hydrogen as fuel or electricity-based heating, strongly influences the oxidation of the stainless steel surface in the reheating furnace. Thermogravimetric tests using different simulated combustion and induction reheating conditions are performed for austenitic AISI 301, AISI 304, and ferritic AISI 444 steel grades. Simulated furnace atmospheres in combustion methods are based on methane–air, methane–oxygen, hydrogen–oxygen, and methane–hydrogen–oxygen combinations. For induction simulations, air and nitrogen are used as furnace atmospheres. The results indicate that changes in heating conditions to H2-fueled combustion or induction only have a minor influence on the oxidation of the ferritic grade; whereas, their effects on the austenitic grades are more pronounced. The transition from a methane–air to H2–oxyfuel combustion increases the total oxidation by 1.7 and 4 times for steel grades 304 and 301, respectively; therefore, grade 304 can be considered better suited for transition for H2–oxyfuel use. The shorter induction heating considerably decreases the amount of oxide scale for austenitic grades, but the nitrogen atmosphere produces a subscale inside the steel matrix, which can hinder the descaling process.

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Series: Steel research international
ISSN: 1611-3683
ISSN-E: 1869-344X
ISSN-L: 1611-3683
Issue: Early View
DOI: 10.1002/srin.202300334
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 215 Chemical engineering
Funding: This research was carried out by the Business-Finland-funded project Towards Carbon Neutral Metals (TOCANEM).
Copyright information: © 2023 The Authors. Steel Research International published by Wiley-VCH GmbH. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.