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Vokhmyanin, M., Zolotova, N. Sunspot Observations at the Eimmart Observatory: Revision and Supplement. Sol Phys 298, 113 (2023).

Sunspot observations at the Eimmart observatory : revision and supplement

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Author: Vokhmyanin, Mikhail1; Zolotova, Nadezhda2
Organizations: 1Space Climate Group, Space Physics and Astronomy Research Unit, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
2St. Petersburg State University, Universitetskaya nab. 7/9, 198504, St. Petersburg, Russia
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 5 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Springer Nature, 2023
Publish Date: 2023-10-23


Digital images of sunspot drawings of the archives of Georg Christoph Eimmart stored at the National Library of Russia, St. Petersburg, are analyzed to obtain sunspot-group numbers and sunspot areas as well as heliographic positions. Overall, more than a hundred drawings were processed. The impact of drawing and reproduction uncertainties and the aims of historical observations are considered. The sunspot positions are compared to those reported by contemporary observers of the Maunder minimum. The restored sunspot-group numbers and latitudes are compared to those extracted by Hoyt and Schatten (Solar Phys. 179, 189, 1998) as well as Hayakawa et al. (Solar Phys. 296, 154, 2021b) and Hayakawa et al. (Astrophys. J. 909, 166, 2021d). The persistence of long-lived sunspots over several solar rotations is discussed.

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Series: Solar physics
ISSN: 0038-0938
ISSN-E: 1573-093X
ISSN-L: 0038-0938
Volume: 298
Issue: 10
Article number: 113
DOI: 10.1007/s11207-023-02208-4
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 115 Astronomy and space science
Funding: This work was supported by the Russian Science Foundation grant No. 23-47-00006 “Magnetic Reconnection in Space and Laboratory Plasmas: Computer Simulations and Empirical Modeling”. Open Access funding provided by University of Oulu (including Oulu University Hospital).
Copyright information: © The Author(s) 2023. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit