University of Oulu

Elijah Adesanya, Juho Yliniemi, Paivo Kinnunen, Mikko Finnilä, Mirja Illikainen, Utilization of green liquor dreg in lightweight aggregates: Effect of texture on physical properties, Developments in the Built Environment, Volume 15, 2023, 100219, ISSN 2666-1659,

Utilization of green liquor dreg in lightweight aggregates : effect of texture on physical properties

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Author: Adesanya, Elijah1,2; Yliniemi, Juho1; Kinnunen, Paivo1;
Organizations: 1Fiber and Particle Engineering Research Unit, University of Oulu, PO Box 4300, 90014, Finland
2School of Civil Engineering, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT, United Kingdom
3Research Unit of Medical Imaging, Physics and Technology, University of Oulu, Aapistie 5 A, Oulu, 90220, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 6.2 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2023
Publish Date: 2023-10-23


Green liquor dreg (GLD) is a side stream generated by pulp industry. Due to its complex physicochemical nature, it has been reported to be difficult material to utilize. Here, a novel approach towards utilization of moist and dry green liquor dreg as binder and filler in alkali-activated lightweight artificial aggregates was developed. Dried GLD and moist GLD were granulated with blast furnace slag (BFS) and Bioash in different mixtures using alkali activation. The effect of the GLD nature (dried and moist) on strength, microstructure and durability of the lightweight granules were determined and compared. Results show that the method used in homogenizing the moist GLD and other powders was efficient and improved the frost resistance. The reaction product identified in the granule’s includes calcium silicate hydrate, Mg–Al layered double hydroxides, and ettringite. These results demonstrate the potential of GLD as a binder and fillers in cementitious applications.

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Series: Developments in the built environment
ISSN: 2666-1659
ISSN-E: 2666-1659
ISSN-L: 2666-1659
Volume: 15
Article number: 100219
DOI: 10.1016/j.dibe.2023.100219
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 216 Materials engineering
215 Chemical engineering
Funding: EA acknowledges the financial support of Finnish Cultural Foundation for the postdoctoral research grant (#00201230). Jarno Karvonen, Jani Österlund, and Mehedi Rabbil are acknowledged for their laboratory work during this study. SEM, XRF and XRD characterizations were carried out with the support from the Centre for Material Analysis, University of Oulu, Finland.
Copyright information: © 2023 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (