University of Oulu

A. K. Yadav, A. Braeken, M. Ylianttila and M. Liyanage, "A Blockchain-based Authentication Protocol for Metaverse Environments using a Zero Knowledge Proof," 2023 IEEE International Conference on Metaverse Computing, Networking and Applications (MetaCom), Kyoto, Japan, 2023, pp. 242-249, doi: 10.1109/MetaCom57706.2023.00053

A blockchain-based authentication protocol for metaverse environments using a zero knowledge proof

Saved in:
Author: Yadav, Awaneesh Kumar1; Braeken, An2; Ylianttila, Mika3;
Organizations: 1Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, Uttarakhand, India
2Department of Engineering, Technology (INDI), Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium
3Centre for Wireless Communications, University of Oulu, Finland
4School of Computer Science, University College Dublin, Ireland
Format: article
Version: accepted version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 2.3 MB)
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: IEEE, 2023
Publish Date: 2023-10-31


The metaverse, which consists of several universes called verses, is predicted to be the Internet of the future. Recently, this idea has received a lot of discussions, but not enough attention has been paid to the security concerns of these virtual worlds. Primarily when the user and platform server communicate with each other and share sensitive information using the public channel, any attacker can capture the message and can perform various types of attacks such as privacy attack, violation of perfect forward secrecy, impersonation attack, ephemeral secret leakage attack and traceability attack. Therefore, there is impelling need to design an authentication protocol for the metaverse environment that can secure the communication between the user and the platform server. Taking this into account, we designed a zero-knowledge proof authentication protocol based on blockchain for the metaverse environment. The security of the designed protocol is verified through the Burrows-Abadi-Needham (BAN) logic, Scyther tool, and Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications (AVISPA) tool. The outcome of the security verification demonstrates that the designed metaverse authentication protocol mitigates all the attacks mentioned above. Moreover, we evaluated the performance of the designed metaverse authentication protocol in terms of computational, communication, storage costs, and energy consumption and compared it with existing metaverse authentication protocols, showing good results taking into account the additional security strength.

see all

ISBN: 979-8-3503-3333-6
ISBN Print: 979-8-3503-3334-3
Pages: 242 - 249
DOI: 10.1109/MetaCom57706.2023.00053
Host publication: Proceedings - 2023 IEEE International Conference on Metaverse Computing, Networking and Applications MetaCom 2023 Kyoto, Japan 26-28 June 2023
Conference: IEEE International Conference on Metaverse Computing, Networking and Applications
Type of Publication: A4 Article in conference proceedings
Field of Science: 213 Electronic, automation and communications engineering, electronics
Copyright information: © 2023 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other uses, in any current or future media, including reprinting/republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works, for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted component of this work in other works.