University of Oulu

Tri Nguyen, Huong Nguyen, Juha Partala, Susanna Pirttikangas, TrustedMaaS: Transforming trust and transparency Mobility-as-a-Service with blockchain, Future Generation Computer Systems, Volume 149, 2023, Pages 606-621, ISSN 0167-739X,

TrustedMaaS : transforming trust and transparency Mobility-as-a-Service with blockchain

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Author: Nguyen, Tri1; Nguyen, Huong1; Partala, Juha1;
Organizations: 1Faculty of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, University of Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.8 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2023
Publish Date: 2023-11-01


Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS) is an advanced Intelligent Transport System (ITS) that integrates various modes of transportation to meet the demands of travellers. The system relies on frequent communication for data exchange between the MaaS provider and transport service providers. Ideally, such communication would utilize trust technologies between these entities. However, current MaaS systems lack transparency and reliability, and their centralized nature creates a single point of failure for the entire service. To address these issues, this paper proposes a blockchain-based MaaS, which includes an architecture and smart contract functionalities. The solutions are built on permissioned and permissionless Hyperledger Fabric and Ethereum blockchain platforms, respectively, for a realistic deployment of network architecture and proposed smart contracts. Additionally, the paper presents a framework derived from comparing these two blockchain platforms. Finally, the framework is evaluated, and open questions and challenges are analysed.

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Series: Future generation computer systems
ISSN: 0167-739X
ISSN-E: 1872-7115
ISSN-L: 0167-739X
Volume: 149
Pages: 606 - 621
DOI: 10.1016/j.future.2023.08.011
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 113 Computer and information sciences
Funding: This research is done in a strategic research project TrustedMaaS under focus institute Infotech Oulu, Finland, University of Oulu, Finland, Academy of Finland, 6G Flagship, Finland (grant 318927), and ECSEL JU FRACTAL, Finland (grant 877056). A personal grant by the Nokia Foundation and Tauno Tönning Foundation for Mr. Tri Nguyen.
EU Grant Number: (877056) FRACTAL - A Cognitive Fractal and Secure EDGE based on an unique Open-Safe-Reliable-Low Power Hardware Platform Node
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 318927
Detailed Information: 318927 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © 2023 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (