University of Oulu

V. Pathak, R. J. Pandya, V. Bhatia and O. A. Lopez, "Qualitative Survey on Artificial Intelligence Integrated Blockchain Approach for 6G and Beyond," in IEEE Access, vol. 11, pp. 105935-105981, 2023, doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2023.3319083.

Qualitative survey on artificial intelligence integrated blockchain approach for 6G and beyond

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Author: Pathak, Vivek1; Pandya, Rahul Jashvantbhai1; Bhatia, Vimal2,3,4;
Organizations: 1Indian Institute of Technology Dharwad, Dharwad, Karnataka, India
2Indian Institute of Technology Indore, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India
3Faculty of Informatics and Management, University of Hradec Kralove, Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic
4School of Electronic and Information Engineering, Soochow University, Suzhou, China
5Centre for Wireless Communications (CWC), University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 11.1 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2023
Publish Date: 2023-11-01


Utilizing the 0.1 to 10 THz spectrum in the next-generation wireless communication networks holds potential for futuristic applications. However, managing resources to accommodate numerous devices raises privacy and security concerns. Further, technology proliferation entwines devices, infrastructure complexity, and resources. Indeed, the transition from 5G (fifth-generation) to 6G (sixth-generation) signifies a progression towards high-speed data rates, minimal latency, and seamless integration of artificial intelligence, enabling ground-breaking applications and services. However, it complicates network management, privacy, resource allocation, and data processing. Notably, integrating Blockchain Technology (BCT) and Machine Learning (ML) is a promising solution, enhancing security, decentralization, trust in ML decisions, and efficient data sharing. This survey thoroughly reviews the integrated ML and BCT, showcasing their collaborative enhancement of network security, decentralization, trust in ML decisions, immutability, and efficient model sharing. Furthermore, we also delve into various distinctive topics, such as BCT-enabled spectrum refarming, rate splitting multiple access, 6G radar-based communication, reconfigurable intelligent surfaces, visible light communication, and integrated sensing and communication. Moreover, it also explores the integration of ML and BCT in novel 6G communication technologies, including molecular, holographic, and semantic communication. Finally, critical open issues, challenges, solutions, and futuristic scope are identified for forthcoming researchers.

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Series: IEEE access
ISSN: 2169-3536
ISSN-E: 2169-3536
ISSN-L: 2169-3536
Volume: 11
Pages: 105935 - 105981
DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2023.3319083
Type of Publication: A2 Review article in a scientific journal
Field of Science: 213 Electronic, automation and communications engineering, electronics
Funding: This work was supported by the Science and Engineering Research Board (SERB), Indian Institute of Technology Dharwad, India, under Grant EEQ/2020/000047.
Copyright information: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. For more information, see