University of Oulu

Ismail Celik, Exploring the Determinants of Artificial Intelligence (AI) Literacy: Digital Divide, Computational Thinking, Cognitive Absorption, Telematics and Informatics, Volume 83, 2023, 102026, ISSN 0736-5853,

Exploring the determinants of artificial intelligence (AI) literacy : digital divide, computational thinking, cognitive absorption

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Author: Celik, Ismail1
Organizations: 1Teachers, Teaching and Educational Communities (TTEC) Unit, Faculty of Education and Psychology, University of Oulu, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.4 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2023
Publish Date: 2023-11-03


To effectively utilize artificial intelligence (AI)-based technologies such as ChatGPT and realize their novel ethical issues, individuals must have a variety of knowledge and skills about AI. Such knowledge and skills have led to the emergence of AI literacy. Despite the importance of AI literacy in everyday life, little is known about its determinants. To better understand the determinants of AI literacy, we attempted to build a research model relying on previous research and different theoretical frameworks. The model incorporated digital divide, cognitive absorption, and computational thinking. As a major finding from the current study, computational thinking was found to be a significant determinant of AI literacy, which facilitate using, recognizing, and evaluating AI-based technologies. Moreover, we found out that individuals with physical access to information and communication technologies (ICTs) are more expected to use and recognize AI. Also, motivation and skills in using ICTs enable individuals to better evaluate the outcomes of AI-based technologies. The findings also showed that convenient access to ICTs contributes to a deep involvement with AI-based technologies in the use. Further, individuals with higher motivation and skills to use AI technologies are likely to have a pleasant experience after using these technologies.

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Series: Telematics and informatics
ISSN: 0736-5853
ISSN-E: 1879-324X
ISSN-L: 0736-5853
Volume: 83
Article number: 102026
DOI: 10.1016/j.tele.2023.102026
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 516 Educational sciences
113 Computer and information sciences
Copyright information: © 2023 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (