University of Oulu

Kleinhans, G., Karhu, A. J., Boddaert, H., Tanweer, S., Wunderlin, D., & Bezuidenhout, D. I. (2023). LNL-Carbazole Pincer Ligand: More than the Sum of Its Parts. Chemical Reviews 2023, 123, 13, 8781–8858.

LNL-carbazole pincer ligand : more than the sum of its parts

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Author: Kleinhans, George1; Karhu, Aino J.1; Boddaert, Hugo1;
Organizations: 1Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry, Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Technology, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 3000, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 11.3 MB)
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Language: English
Published: American Chemical Society, 2023
Publish Date: 2023-11-03


The utility of carbazole in photo-, electro-, and medicinal applications has ensured its widespread use also as the backbone in tridentate pincer ligands. In this review, the aim is to identify and illustrate the key features of the LNL-carbazolide binding to transition metal centers (with L = flanking donor moieties, e.g., C, N, P, and O-groups) in a systematic bottom-up progression to illustrate the marked benefits attainable from (i) the rigid aromatic carbazole scaffold (modulable in both the 1,8- and 3,6-positions), (ii) the significant electronic effect of central carbazole-amido binding to a metal, and the tunable sterics and electronics of both the (iii) flanking donor L-moieties and (iv) the wingtip R-groups on the L-donors, with their corresponding influence on metal coordination geometry, d-electron configuration, and resultant reactivity. Systematic implementation of the ligand design strategies not in isolation, but in a combinatorial approach, is showcased to demonstrate the potential for functional molecules that are not only modulable but also adaptable for wide-ranging applications (e.g., stereoselective (photo)catalysis, challenging small molecule activation, SET and redox applications, and even applications in chemotherapeutics) as an indication of future research efforts anticipated to stem from this versatile pincer assembly, not only for the transition metals but also for s-, p-, and f-block elements.

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Series: Chemical reviews
ISSN: 0009-2665
ISSN-E: 1520-6890
ISSN-L: 0009-2665
Volume: 123
Issue: 13
Pages: 8781 - 8858
DOI: 10.1021/acs.chemrev.3c00202
Type of Publication: A2 Review article in a scientific journal
Field of Science: 116 Chemical sciences
Funding: Financial support by the Jane and Aatos Erkko Foundation, Finland (D.B., 200030), the Finnish Cultural Foundation (S.T., 00231142), and the University of Oulu, Faculty of Technology, is greatly appreciated.
Copyright information: © 2023 The Authors. Published by American Chemical Society. This publication is licensed under CC-BY 4.0.