University of Oulu

Sarkki, S., Haanpää, O., Heikkinen, H.I. et al. Mainstreaming nature-based solutions through five forms of scaling: Case of the Kiiminkijoki River basin, Finland. Ambio (2023).

Mainstreaming nature-based solutions through five forms of scaling : case of the Kiiminkijoki River basin, Finland

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Author: Sarkki, Simo1,2; Haanpää, Olli1; Heikkinen, Hannu I.1;
Organizations: 1Cultural Anthropology, University of Oulu, PO Box 1000, 90014, Oulu, Finland
2Max Weber Centre for Advanced Cultural and Social Studies, Erfurt University, Erfurt, Germany
3Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Itäinen Pitkäkatu 4a, 20520, Turku, Finland
4Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Paavo Havaksen Tie 3, 90570, Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 2 MB)
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: Springer Nature, 2023
Publish Date: 2023-11-06


Nature-based solutions (NBS) are considered as means to tackle climate change and biodiversity loss while simultaneously enhancing human well-being. Yet, it is still poorly understood how NBS could be mainstreamed. We address this gap by proposing a framework on NBS and employing it in Finland’s Kiiminkijoki River basin through participatory workshops and a questionnaire. We examine socio-environmental challenges and visions, existing and emerging NBS to reach the visions, and ways to scale-up NBS to a river basin level. In the river basin, water quality is the priority challenge, due to its relationships with local culture, climate change, and biodiversity. Our results consider how (1) to ensure the relevance of NBS for local actors, (2) instrumental, intrinsic, and relational value perspectives can be enhanced simultaneously by NBS, and (3) site specific NBS can be mainstreamed (i.e., by scaling up, down, out, in, deep) to the river basin level and beyond.

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Series: Ambio. A journal of the human environment
ISSN: 0044-7447
ISSN-E: 1654-7209
ISSN-L: 0044-7447
Volume: Online first
Issue: Online first
DOI: 10.1007/s13280-023-01942-0
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 520 Other social sciences
616 Other humanities
Funding: This research was funded by Catch the carbon research and innovation programme by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Finland (MATKI Project) and by Horizon Europe (Coevolvers Project, Grant Agreement 101084220). Open Access funding provided by University of Oulu (including Oulu University Hospital).
Copyright information: © The Author(s) 2023. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit