University of Oulu

Mikael Laakso, Anna-Maija Multas, European scholarly journals from small- and mid-size publishers: mapping journals and public funding mechanisms, Science and Public Policy, Volume 50, Issue 3, June 2023, Pages 445–456,

European scholarly journals from small- and mid-size publishers : mapping journals and public funding mechanisms

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Author: Laakso, Mikael1; Multas, Anna-Maija2
Organizations: 1Information Systems Science, Hanken School of Economics, Arkadiankatu 22, Helsinki 00100, Finland
2Information Studies, Faculty of Humanities, University of Oulu, P. O. Box 1000, Oulu 90014, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.2 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Oxford University Press, 2023
Publish Date: 2023-11-07


This study investigates the relationship between scholarly journal publishing and public funding, specifically concerning the context of small- and mid-sized journal publishers in European countries. As part of the movement towards open science, an increasing number of journals globally are free to both read and publish in, which increases the need for journals to seek other resources instead of subscription income. The study includes two separate components, collecting data separately for each European country (including transcontinental states): (1) the volume and key bibliometric characteristics of small- and mid-sized journal publishers and (2) information about country-level public funding mechanisms for scholarly journals. The study found that there are 16,387 journals from small- and mid-sized publishers being published in European countries, of which 36 per cent are already publishing open access. There is a large diversity in how countries reserve and distribute funds to journals, ranging from continuous inclusive subsidies to competitive grant funding or nothing at all.

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Series: Science and public policy
ISSN: 0302-3427
ISSN-E: 1471-5430
ISSN-L: 0302-3427
Volume: 50
Issue: 3
Pages: 445 - 456
DOI: 10.1093/scipol/scac081
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 520 Other social sciences
518 Media and communications
Funding: This research was funded by the Finnish Association for Scholarly Publishing.
Copyright information: © The Author(s) 2023. Published by Oxford University Press. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.