University of Oulu

K. Lin, O. L. A. López, H. Alves and T. Hao, "On CSI-Free Multiantenna Schemes for Massive Wireless-Powered Underground Sensor Networks," in IEEE Internet of Things Journal, vol. 10, no. 19, pp. 17557-17570, 1 Oct.1, 2023, doi: 10.1109/JIOT.2023.3277498.

On CSI-free multiantenna schemes for massive wireless-powered underground sensor networks

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Author: Lin, Kaiqiang1; Alcaraz López, Onel Luis2; Alves, Hirley2;
Organizations: 1College of Surveying and Geo-Informatics, Tongji University, Shanghai, China
2Centre for Wireless Communications, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 2.6 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2023
Publish Date: 2023-11-15


Radio-frequency wireless energy transfer (WET) is a promising technology to realize wireless-powered underground sensor networks (WPUSNs) and enable sustainable underground monitoring. However, due to the severe attenuation in harsh underground soil and the tight energy budget of the underground sensors, traditional WPUSNs relying on the channel state information (CSI) are highly inefficient, especially in massive WET scenarios. To address this challenge, we comparatively assess the feasibility of several state-of-the-art CSI-free multiantenna WET schemes for WPUSNs, under a given power budget. Moreover, to overcome the extremely low WET efficiency in underground channels, we propose a distributed CSI-free system, where multiple power beacons (PBs) simultaneously charge a large set of underground sensors without any CSI. We consider the position-aware K -Means and the position-agnostic equally far-from-center (EFFC) approaches for the optimal deployment of the PBs. Our results evince that the performance of the proposed distributed CSI-free system can approach or even surpass that of a traditional full-CSI WET strategy, especially when adopting an appropriate CSI-free scheme, applying the advisable PBs deployment approach, and equipping the PBs with an appropriate number of antennas. Finally, we discuss the impact of underground parameters, i.e., the burial depth of devices and the volumetric water content of soil, on the system’s performance, and identify potential challenges and research opportunities for practical distributed CSI-free WPUSNs deployment.

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Series: IEEE internet of things journal
ISSN: 2372-2541
ISSN-E: 2327-4662
ISSN-L: 2327-4662
Volume: 10
Issue: 19
Pages: 17557 - 17570
DOI: 10.1109/jiot.2023.3277498
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 213 Electronic, automation and communications engineering, electronics
Funding: This work was supported in part by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 42074179 and 42211530077), Academy of Finland (No. 346208 (6G Flagship) and No. 348515 (UPRISING)), the Finnish Foundation for Technology Promotion, and the China Scholarship Council.
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 346208
Detailed Information: 346208 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
348515 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
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