1University of Oulu, Oulu Business School, Department of Marketing, Marketing
|Online Access:||PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.3 MB)|
|Persistent link:|| http://urn.fi/URN:NBN:fi:oulu-201306061526
|Publish Date:|| 2013-06-13
|Thesis type:||Master's thesis
This research studies gamification: the use of game design elements in non-game contexts. Gamification is a new phenomenon that has not yet been studied extensively in academic papers. There is a significant research gap to be filled. The purpose of this research is to study how gamification can be used for the benefit of marketing. This is achieved by studying the design process of gamification, the special motivational factors behind gamification, and the game elements that constitute a gamfication system. The end result will be a framework for designing a gamification system that is suited for marketing.
This is a qualitative study that aims to acquire deep understanding about the phenomenon studied. This research uses a deductive approach to analyzing data. A theoretical framework is tested with an empirical study. The study is based on a theoretical framework created by a literature review. The empirical study is based on interviews that are analyzed using qualitative methods based on the theory reviewed. The primary data collection method is interviewing and the data gathered is analyzed with qualitative methods.
The main theoretical contribution is a new empirically justified framework for designing gamification. The framework is based on the framework that was tested but has been modified extensively according to the results of the empirical study. In addition three core motivational factors of autonomy, competence, and relatedness were confirmed by the study. These factors motivate consumers to use gamification systems. Eight managerial contributions are presented that help businesses use gamification more effectively. The main managerial contribution is a model of game elements for managerial use.
The theoretical results benefit the academic study of gamification while the managerial results are useful for more practical use. The results help in designing gamification from a marketing perspective. The generalization of results to other parts of Finland may be problematic because all of the Finnish interviewees are from Oulu. On the other hand one interviewee is from Bulgaria which allows some generalization to other parts of the world.
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