Designing for interaction with mobile stereoscopic touchscreens
1University of Oulu, Faculty of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, Department of Information Processing Science, Information Processing Science
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This thesis focuses on the design of stereoscopic 3D user interfaces (UIs) for mobile devices. 3D output is no longer limited to large screens in cinemas or living rooms. Nowadays more and more mobile devices are equipped with autostereoscopic 3D (S3D) touchscreens, which do not require the use of special eyewear to perceive the depth effect. As a consequence, interaction with 3D content now also happens whilst users are on the move. This thesis presents an empirical study that was carried out to assess how users interact with mobile S3D devices, both whilst static and when walking. Following this, the design and implementation of a prototype S3D application for indoor navigation is presented. A user study (n=27) that investigated differences in touch accuracy between 2D touchscreens and mobile S3D touchscreens was carried out. The touch target sizes and aspect ratios required for reliable user interaction in each case were calculated, for example concluding that the increase in minimum touch target size caused by walking is larger for a S3D UI than for a 2D UI. This thesis also identifies differences in the angle at which users held the S3D device vs. the 2D device, and reports on depth perception, both in static and mobile contexts. Following on from the empirical study, a prototype S3D indoor navigation application was designed and implemented. Several findings related to visualisation issues in such interfaces are described, e.g. the correct way to use drop shadows as visual cues. This thesis provides valuable information to developers of the next generation of UIs and applications for mobile S3D displays and devices.
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