University of Oulu

Erosion of organic sediments and modelling of sediment transport in peat drainage area

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Author: Khalid, Muhammad1
Organizations: 1University of Oulu, Faculty of Technology, Environmental Engineering
Format: ebook
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 5.4 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Oulu : M. Khalid, 2015
Publish Date: 2015-02-16
Thesis type: Master's thesis (tech)
Tutor: Marttila, Hannu
Reviewer: Marttila, Hannu
Tuukkanen, Tapio
Detailed knowledge from physical properties of sediment such as erosion and settling velocity are crucial for modelling as well as for water protection planning and management. The main purpose of this research was to determine the critical shear stress (τcr) and settling velocity of the organic sediments in different peatland drainage areas and headwaters in Finland. Further, KINEROS2 erosion model was applied to peatland forestry and peat extraction conditions to simulate runoff hydrograph and suspended solid yield from two experimental catchments. To determine mean τcr and settling velocity totally 119 undisturbed sediment samples were taken from the natural streams, ditches and brooks across Finland. The samples covered main peatland uses, peatland forestry and peat extraction sites. Furthermore, to determine the effect of peat soil properties on sediment erosion and settling, peat soil samples were collected from 9 peat extraction areas. These samples were used to prepare sediments in laboratory setting. Cohesive strength meter (CSM) was applied to measure the τcr and settling velocity in laboratory and in-situ conditions. Results were compared against physical properties of sediment or peat soils and further compared against different peatland uses. The critical shear stress over all samples ranged from 0.0057 to 0.428 N m⁻² (mean value 0.116 ± 0.07 N m⁻²). τcr in peatland forestry ditches ranged from 0.0057 to 0.428 N m⁻² (mean value 0.07 ± 0.1 N m⁻²), and in peat extraction sites from 0.006 to 0.421 N m⁻² (mean value 0.12 ± 0.06 N m⁻²). Similarly, τcr of artificially prepared samples from peat extraction area ranged from 0.012 to 0.112 N m⁻² (mean value of 0.059 ± 0.028 N m⁻²). At Koivupuro peatland forestry site, measurements were done in laboratory as well as in-situ. Results gave slightly different values; in-situ τcr ranged from 0.005 to 0.305 N m⁻² with the mean value of 0.03 ± 0.075 N m⁻², and the laboratory results ranged from 0.008 to 0.310 N m⁻² with the mean value of 0.125 ± 0.06 N m⁻². Degree of humification (DOH) and dry bulk density were found to be positively related to critical shear stress. The settling velocity results for Koivupuro catchment ranged from 0.0004 to 0.131 m h⁻¹ (mean value 0.016 ± 0.034 m h⁻¹) and 0.0004 to 0.456 m h⁻¹ (mean value 0.144 ± 0.134 m h⁻¹) for other organic peat samples. Degree of humification (DOH) and settling velocity showed no correlation while dry density of settled sediment was found inversely proportional to settling velocity. This study showed that CSM can be used to determine τcr and settling velocity from organic sediment samples. Results can be applied in modelling purposes, and in dimensioning of water protection methods such as settling basins. Eleven rainfall-runoff events from two different catchments were selected for the study to simulate runoff hydrographs and associated sediment yields in different conditions. When properly calibrated for each event, KINEROS2 model produced sufficient estimations of runoff hydrographs for peatland forestry and peat extraction sites but failed to produce reliable estimations of suspended sediment yields. Moreover, unrealistic parameter values sometimes had to be used in model calibration due to model inability to simulate groundwater or soil water response in ditch flow. Thus the model could not be validated for varying initial conditions and rainfall events.
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