University of Oulu

Radio communication via near vertical incidence skywave system

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Author: Hossain, MD Helal1
Organizations: 1University of Oulu, Faculty of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, Communications Engineering
Format: ebook
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.2 MB)
Pages: 52
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: Oulu : M. Hossain, 2021
Publish Date: 2021-05-26
Thesis type: Master's thesis (tech)
Tutor: Katz, Marcos
Reviewer: Katz, Marcos
Kärkkäinen, Kari


While the overall picture of our cutting-edge communication framework is one of high unwavering quality, the practical experience could be completely different during catastrophic situations, when communication services are disrupted due to damages in the communications infrastructure. Moreover, wireless connectivity in remote areas of the works is still a highly significant problem, with an estimated two billion people being outside of the connected world. This thesis studies the use of high frequencies communications as a way to address the abovementioned cases. High frequency (HF) communication utilizes radio waves between 3 and 30 MHz with the wavelengths of 100 to 10 m. The dominant means of long-distance communication in this band is skywave propagation, in which radio waves that are directed at an angle into the sky are reflected on Earth by the ionized layers of the atmosphere. HF ionospheric reflection technique is commonly used specifically for military, maritime, aeronautical, and emergency communication in remote areas, and as backup system. Factors such as season, sunspot cycle, solar activity, as well as polar aurora plays significant roles in the sustainability of HF radio communications. Propagation plays the most significant role while designing a communication network. Radio waves propagates with an objective of transmitting signal successfully without having an error. So, studies on wave propagation mechanisms, channel and noises are equally important.

This thesis focuses on high frequency near vertical incidence skywave (HF NVIS) technology. NVIS, exploiting a frequency range of 2–10 MHz, can provide continuous coverage up to a couple of hundred kilometres from the transmitter without skip zone. NVIS operation is considered during disaster relief operations when infrastructure is severely damaged or where tactical communication is needed in military operations. NVIS operation requires the presence of substantial ionization in the ionosphere directly above the transmitter. For optimizing a NVIS communication system, the most important parameters to consider are elevation angle, fading, noise and polarization. Furthermore, NVIS operation requires careful selection of antennas, operating frequency, maximum usable frequency (MUF), lowest usable frequency (LUF), as well as frequency of optimum transmission (FOT) for successful communication. At the time of emergency, low data services such as voice and text could be easily established with NVIS system. A comprehensive overview of NVIS based on number of research articles is given which highlights ionospheric propagation, antennas, the operational use of HF communications, as well as applications. Further, we highlight the challenges with possible solutions, and future research direction to ensure NVIS system sustainability. From this literature review, the significant relationship between NVIS antenna and NVIS propagation mechanism is discussed. Furthermore, thesis provides a reference text to understand various elements of NVIS system and demonstrate how modern technology can be used to solve HF issues. We believe that this article will encourage more interests in addressing the technical challenges on the research and development of future HF radio communication systems.

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Copyright information: © MD Helal Hossain, 2021. This publication is copyrighted. You may download, display and print it for your own personal use. Commercial use is prohibited.