University of Oulu

Instruments for visualization of self, co, and socially shared regulation of learning using multimodal analytics : a systematic review

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Author: Mishra, Rohit1
Organizations: 1University of Oulu, Faculty of Education, Educational Sciences
Format: ebook
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.7 MB)
Pages: 81
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: Oulu : R. Mishra, 2021
Publish Date: 2021-08-19
Thesis type: Master's thesis
Tutor: Malmberg, Jonna
Nguyen, Xuân
Reviewer: Malmberg, Jonna
Vuopala, Essi
Saqr, Mohammed


This thesis presents a systematic literature review in the intersection of multimodal learning analytics, regulation theories of learning, and visual analytics literature of the last decade (2011- 2021). This review is to collect existing research-based instruments designed to visualize Self-Regulation of Learning (SRL), Co-Regulation of learning (CoRL), and Socially Shared Regulation of learning (SSRL) using dashboards and multimodal data. The inclusion and exclusion criteria used in this review addressed two main aims. First, to distil settings, instruments, constructs, and audiences. Second, to identify visualization used for targets (i.e., cognition, motivation, and emotion), phases (i.e., forethought, performance, and reflection), and types of regulation (i.e., SRL, CoRL, and SSRL). By following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and MetaAnalyses (PRISMA) guidelines, this thesis included 23 peer-reviewed articles out of 383 articles retrieved from 5 different databases searched in April 2021. The main findings from this literature review are (a) the included articles used theoretical grounding of SRL in all articles while CoRL is used only in 3 articles and SSRL only in 2 articles; (b) most articles used both teachers and students as the audience for visual feedback and operated in online learning settings; (c) selected articles focused mainly on visualizing cognition and motivation (17 articles each) as targets of regulation, while emotion as the target was applied only in 6 articles; (d) The performance phase was common to most of the articles and used various visualizations followed by reflection and forethought phases respectively. Simple visualizations, i.e., progress bar chart, line chart, color coding, are used more frequently than bubble chart, stacked column chart, funnel chart, heat maps, and Sankey diagram. Most of the dashboard instruments identified in the review are still improving their designs. Therefore, the results of this review should be put into the context of future studies to be utilized by researchers and teachers in recognizing the missing targets and phases of SRL, CoRL, and SSRL in visualized feedback. Addressing these could also assist them in giving timely feedback on students’ learning strategies to improve their regulatory skills.

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Copyright information: © Rohit Mishra, 2021. This publication is copyrighted. You may download, display and print it for your own personal use. Commercial use is prohibited.