University of Oulu

A mathematical model for the thermal state of a steel ladle

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Author: Mäkelä, Ilpo1
Organizations: 1University of Oulu, Faculty of Technology, Process Engineering
Format: ebook
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.8 MB)
Pages: 57
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: Oulu : I. Mäkelä, 2022
Publish Date: 2022-01-12
Thesis type: Master's thesis (tech)
Tutor: Visuri, Ville-Valtteri Werner
Laukka, Aleksi
Mattila, Riku
Reviewer: Visuri, Ville-Valtteri Werner


The aim of this thesis was to form a dynamic one-dimensional mathematical model for the thermal state of a steelmaking ladle. The model is to be used as a design tool, and to predict the melt temperature drop after tapping.

The ladle thermal state model is based on the conservation of energy. In this thesis, the key energy transfer mechanisms, and routes are covered. The ladle gets its energy from the melt, preheating and processes. Energy is lost from the ladle surfaces through radiation and convection. The model was formed using Python programming language, and has three calculation modes: empty ladle, filled ladle and ladle in heating. The calculation is performed using the implicit Euler method.

During this thesis, a measurement campaign was conducted at Outokumpu Tornio melt shop 2. During the campaign, the mantles of multiple steel ladles were imaged using a thermal camera. These images could then be used to measure the mantle temperature drop during teeming.

The formed model was capable of recognizing the mantle temperature drop, however the predicted time of this change was incorrect. Ways to improve the current model are covered in this work. The model can with relative ease be used for ladles of different sizes and materials.

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Copyright information: © Ilpo Mäkelä, 2022. Except otherwise noted, the reuse of this document is authorised under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC-BY 4.0) licence ( This means that reuse is allowed provided appropriate credit is given and any changes are indicated. For any use or reproduction of elements that are not owned by the author(s), permission may need to be directly from the respective right holders.