University of Oulu

Environmental impacts of Lithium-ion batteries

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Author: Illikainen, Sofia1
Organizations: 1University of Oulu, Faculty of Science, Physics
Format: ebook
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 16.3 MB)
Pages: 29
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: Oulu : S. Illikainen, 2022
Publish Date: 2022-11-29
Thesis type: Bachelor's thesis
Tutor: Sliz, Rafal


Going towards a greener future seems to involve secondary batteries, especially lithium-ion batteries at the moment. Lithium-ion batteries are used in electric vehicles, energy storage, and in portable devices. With electric vehicles increasing production the consumption of lithium-ion batteries is expected to grow significantly in the future.

This brings the question of how green lithium-ion batteries really are? Mining raw materials for lithium-ion batteries has been raising concerns regarding human rights, and it has also resulted in lithium and cobalt to be positioned on the list of critical raw materials in EU, and raised concerns with environmental impacts. In the process of fabricating lithium-ion batteries the solvent normally used, N-methyl pyrrolidone (NMP), is highly toxic and therefore restricted by numerous chemical legislations in industry applications.

Efficient recycling could make lithium-ion batteries environmentally friendly. Although recycling is not sufficient yet, there is a lot of ongoing research in both academia and industry. This thesis review various aspects of battery sustainability and provides some basic guidelines on how to make lithium-ion batteries more sustainable for a greener future.

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Copyright information: © Sofia Illikainen, 2022. Except otherwise noted, the reuse of this document is authorised under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC-BY 4.0) licence ( This means that reuse is allowed provided appropriate credit is given and any changes are indicated. For any use or reproduction of elements that are not owned by the author(s), permission may need to be directly from the respective right holders.