University of Oulu

Multi-user MIMO beamforming : implementation, verification in L1 capacity, and performance testing

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Author: Khan, Hamza1
Organizations: 1University of Oulu, Faculty of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, Communications Engineering
Format: ebook
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 2.2 MB)
Pages: 59
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: Oulu : H. Khan, 2023
Publish Date: 2023-05-08
Thesis type: Master's thesis (tech)
Tutor: Alcaraz López, Onel
Tölli, Antti-Heikki
Reviewer: Alcaraz López, Onel
Tölli, Antti-Heikki


A certain piece of technology takes a lot of effort, research, and testing to reach the productisation phase. Radio features are implemented in layer 1 (L1) before moving to the hardware implementation phase, where their functioning is tested and verified. The target of the thesis is to implement and verify beamforming based multi-user multiple-input multiple-output (MU-MIMO) in L1 capacity and performance testing (PET) environment. The L1 testing environment mainly focuses on 4G and 5G stand-alone (SA) cases, while the focus of this thesis work is only on 5G SA technology, which features beamforming and MU-MIMO. Beamforming and MU-MIMO have been tested in an end-to-end system but not specifically in L1. The L1 testing provides a deeper analysis of beamforming and MU-MIMO in L1 and aids in problem identification at an early productisation phase, saving both time and money. L1 PET has multiple components that work together for L1 data transmission in both uplink (UL) and downlink (DL) directions and handle the verification of the transmitted data. The main components that play a key role in the implementation of multi-user MIMO beamforming concern frame design setup, message setup for UL and DL using correct channels and interfaces, transmission of the generated data in UL and DL, and message capturing at L1 end (whether correct messages are transmitted or not). For verification purposes, methods such as analysing plots from L1 log results based on comparison with radio specifications are used to determine whether the generated test output is correct or not. Finally, performance metrics, such as error vector magnitude (EVM), UE per transmission time interval (TTI), number of layers per UE, channel quality indicator (CQI), physical resource block (PRB) count, and throughput, are evaluated to assess the capacity and performance correctness of the implemented test setup.

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Copyright information: © Hamza Khan, 2023. Except otherwise noted, the reuse of this document is authorised under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC-BY 4.0) licence ( This means that reuse is allowed provided appropriate credit is given and any changes are indicated. For any use or reproduction of elements that are not owned by the author(s), permission may need to be directly from the respective right holders.