University of Oulu

Hydrogen storage technologies and implications of real-life applications : a review of case studies

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Author: Hirvonen, Henri1
Organizations: 1University of Oulu, Faculty of Technology, Environmental Engineering
Format: ebook
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.8 MB)
Pages: 37
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Language: English
Published: Oulu : H. Hirvonen, 2023
Publish Date: 2023-06-12
Thesis type: Bachelor's thesis
Tutor: Kiehle, Julia


Hydrogen is seen as the solution for a carbon-neutral future. It can be used as a fuel for traffic, transportation, industry, and energy generation. Green hydrogen is produced from renewable energy sources. It can be produced in overgeneration periods and be utilized when needed, creating energy storage.

The objective of the thesis was to find out the best hydrogen storage technologies for each purpose currently available for implementation, and options that are being developed. In addition, hydrogen strategies in the European Union and Finland were analyzed. Based on that knowledge, one case study of long-term seasonal hydrogen storage and one short-term hydrogen storage, which levels daily renewable energy generation fluctuations, are analyzed. The case studies were based on modelling. The short-term case study examinesan electrical testing laboratory, located in Saudi Arabia’s eastern region. The long-term case study is located in Finland. In addition, a real-life hydrogen project is analyzed to show the impacts of the integration of hydrogen storage technologies in the energy system. Calculations based on statistical data and technological parameters were used as a research method.

The results of the analysis show that compressed hydrogen, liquefied hydrogen, and metal hydrides are far-developed and most-used storage methods. Cryo-compressed hydrogen, liquid organic hydrogen carriers, physically adsorbed hydrogen, and complex metal hydrides are still developing technologies. The advantages of integrating hydrogenstorage into the energy system lie in its ability to minimize the unmet demand by storing green hydrogen produced in low-demand periods and utilizing it later. This reduces the demand for fossil-based energy, preventing carbon dioxide emissions. In addition, hydrogen storage would have a positive effect on the prices of renewable energy systems.

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Copyright information: © Henri Hirvonen, 2023. Except otherwise noted, the reuse of this document is authorised under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC-BY 4.0) licence ( This means that reuse is allowed provided appropriate credit is given and any changes are indicated. For any use or reproduction of elements that are not owned by the author(s), permission may need to be directly from the respective right holders.