University of Oulu

Developing human-centred framework and guidelines for disc golf application design

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Author: Moilanen, Marko1
Organizations: 1University of Oulu, Faculty of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, Department of Information Processing Science, Information Processing Science
Format: ebook
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 3.9 MB)
Pages: 92
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: Oulu : M. Moilanen, 2023
Publish Date: 2023-06-15
Thesis type: Master's thesis
Tutor: Arhippainen, Leena
Reviewer: Arhippainen, Leena
Rajanen, Mikko
Lanamäki, Arto


Disc golf is an increasingly popular sport, especially in Finland and the USA. The disc golf industry and Professional Disc Golf Association have proceeded in the digital transformation; therefore, disc golf applications have penetrated the markets. There is a need for evaluating and developing the current quality of disc golf application design and looking for general guidelines for designing comprehensive applications. This thesis aims to study what kind of framework is hidden behind the disc golf application design from a human-centred perspective when also several stakeholders are concerned.

The study is based on theoretical and empirical research. Theoretical research is conducted by literary review of existing disc golf application design guidelines, together with human-centred design, user-centred design, and stakeholder-centred design theory and methodologies in general. Nevertheless, a research gap is found as far as disc golf, golf, and sports application design are concerned. Thus, the review expands to study field practitioners and mobile health context. The literary review also examines disc golf as a sport and in numbers, together with current disc golf applications.

Empirical research adapts human-centred design methods by studying users’ expectations, needs, and wishes in the mean of questionnaires, and interviews. Also, the context of use is identified and visited, user requirements are mapped, disc golf personas are created, and the disc golf application’s stakeholders are identified. Then, the method adapted from service-dominant logic is used for preparing value proposals for all disc golf application users, and other stakeholders.

By adapting the design guidelines from the literature and empirical findings, the human-centred guidelines for disc golf application design (HGDG) framework is presented as the first main finding of the thesis. The HGDG framework can be used for disc golf application design and ensuring the usage of the human-centred approach. The second main finding, 15 design guidelines and instructions for disc golf application design reinforces the HGDG framework. The third main finding suggests using 15 design guidelines as a metric for evaluating if the designed application achieves an ideal win-win-…-win situation between of application provider, users, and other stakeholders.

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Copyright information: © Marko Moilanen, 2023. Except otherwise noted, the reuse of this document is authorised under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC-BY 4.0) licence ( This means that reuse is allowed provided appropriate credit is given and any changes are indicated. For any use or reproduction of elements that are not owned by the author(s), permission may need to be directly from the respective right holders.