University of Oulu

Detecting diverse types of cardiovascular brain pulses in Alzheimer’s disease simultaneously with fNIRS and MREG

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Author: Masena, Bebelo1
Organizations: 1University of Oulu, Faculty of Science, Physics
Format: ebook
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 2.8 MB)
Pages: 54
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: Oulu : B. Masena, 2023
Publish Date: 2023-06-15
Thesis type: Master's thesis
Tutor: Korhonen, Vesa
Heimonen, Kyösti
Reviewer: Heimonen, Kyösti


One of the risk factors for Alzheimer’s disease is hypertension. Hypertension alters the brain’s blood vessel structure due to increased arterial pressure. Structural changes in the blood vessels are seen in the cardiovascular pulse, which is formed by blood velocity, blood flow rate, blood pressure, and infrequently blood flow. By simultaneously applying magnetic resonance encephalography (MREG) and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), this study discovered cardiovascular brain pulses from the blood flow within patients with Alzheimer’s disease and healthy controls. This study detects specific parameters within diverse types of cardiovascular brain pulses. The results detected changes in parameters for diverse types of cardiovascular brain pulses in patients with Alzheimer’s disease within MREG and fNIRS. In addition, the results present an alternative method for finding cardiovascular brain pulse from the blood flow, which might reflect the structural changes of a blood vessel in patients with Alzheimer’s disease. In conclusion, diverse types of cardiovascular brain pulses represent an approximation of arterial, venous, and tissue pulses, which is beneficial for distinguishing the effect of venous and arterial hypertension in Alzheimer’s disease. Furthermore, altered blood flow may potentially be associated with the impaired glymphatic system in Alzheimer’s disease.

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Copyright information: © Bebelo Masena, 2023. Except otherwise noted, the reuse of this document is authorised under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC-BY 4.0) licence ( This means that reuse is allowed provided appropriate credit is given and any changes are indicated. For any use or reproduction of elements that are not owned by the author(s), permission may need to be directly from the respective right holders.