University of Oulu

Upskilling chinese SMEs : a holistic training model for enhanced employee performance and expertise development

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Author: Wang, Gang1
Organizations: 1University of Oulu, Faculty of Education, Educational Sciences
Format: ebook
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.3 MB)
Pages: 58
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: Oulu : G. Wang, 2023
Publish Date: 2023-06-16
Thesis type: Master's thesis
Tutor: Laru, Jari
Vuorenmaa, Eija
Reviewer: Vuorenmaa, Eija
Laru, Jari


This research investigates the critical elements needed for a comprehensive training model geared towards upskilling employees in Chinese Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs). It builds on the theoretical foundations of the Four-Component Instructional Design model (4C/ID) and Socially Shared Regulation in Learning (SSRL), extending its scope to explore additional components and their interrelationships within a holistic training model. The goal is to provide valuable insights into expertise development, addressing individual cognitive processes and social interactions in a multifaceted learning environment that integrates online and offline platforms. Data was collected from participants in five Chinese SMEs across various industries, using semi-structured interviews to capture insights into the model’s effectiveness. Inductive qualitative analysis identified nine key components crucial for a successful training model, including Learning Tasks, Supportive Information, Procedural Information, Part-task Practice, Self-Regulated Learning (SRL), Co-regulation, and Socially Shared Regulation, along with the analysis of the organisation’s current business needs and the assessment of employees’ competences. The study underscored the importance of understanding the intricate relationships between these components. Consequently, the proposed Collaborative Competence-based Training Model (CCTM) combines the 4C/ID model with SSRL components and incorporates the two additional components discovered in the study. By adopting the CCTM, Chinese SMEs can enhance their training program’s effectiveness, improve their performance, and enhance competitiveness. However, this research’s limitations indicate the need for further studies with larger samples, objective data, and longitudinal approaches to better comprehend the impact of training and development across different industries.

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Copyright information: © Gang Wang, 2023. Except otherwise noted, the reuse of this document is authorised under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC-BY 4.0) licence ( This means that reuse is allowed provided appropriate credit is given and any changes are indicated. For any use or reproduction of elements that are not owned by the author(s), permission may need to be directly from the respective right holders.